Understanding Bitcoin’s Lightning Network and How It Works [Basic Crypto Concepts To Know]

Bitcoin’s Lightning Network
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The Lightning Network, or “Lightning” for short, allows Bitcoin users to perform tiny transactions without paying high fees or waiting extended periods for confirmation. While this invention isn’t currently accessible to the typical Bitcoin user, it has the potential to tackle two of Bitcoin’s main issues: high transaction fees and lengthy confirmation periods, both of which make tiny daily purchases impossible.

Lightning isn’t even among the top five things to know before investing in cryptocurrency. However, it may be a fascinating subject for individuals who are interested in the technical aspects of blockchain technology as well as those who wish to utilise Bitcoin as a payment method.

Lightning is a decentralised network that makes use of the Bitcoin blockchain’s smart contract feature to enable immediate payments across a network of users. Because it includes activity that does not take place directly on the blockchain, it is referred to as an off-chain or layer-2 solution.

Bitcoin’s Lightning Network

Why Is Lightning Necessary for Bitcoin?

The Bitcoin network can only handle roughly 7 transactions per second on average due to its decentralised design, which necessitates consensus across a wide variety of machines. In comparison, a standard credit card business like Visa processes 24,000 transactions every second on average.

On average, the Bitcoin network can only execute 7 transactions per second.

Micropayments have overly high transaction costs, which are nonetheless comparatively inexpensive for bigger transactions. Because the costs are so high, sending $5 worth of Bitcoin on-chain isn’t always worth it. Fees might potentially outweigh the cost of such a modest transaction during periods of significant network congestion, making it unfeasible.

A Bitcoin transaction is likewise likely to take several minutes, if not longer, to be validated by the network. It’s important to note, however, that transactions are on a case-to-case basis. Surely, something as complicated as Lighting is not well-suited for beginners. Yet this kind of transaction time may differ when you’re engaging with brokers by means of a lower investment if ever you’re just beginning in your trade.   

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On the other hand, consider purchasing a cup of coffee with a Bitcoin direct transaction. The merchant would have to wait at least a few minutes after payment to collect the monies. Bitcoin’s fundamentals make it difficult to utilise daily. Since 2017, there have been several Bitcoin splits as a result of the discussion over how to make Bitcoin scale.

Lightning offers a unique answer to these issues.

What Is the Bitcoin Lightning Network and How Does It Work?

To authenticate their spending transactions, users must first create their multi-signature Lightning wallet, in which the two parties exchange a single key. The transactions are not published on the main Bitcoin blockchain in this fashion, but they are verifiably genuine.

These off-chain (layer 2) transactions don’t have to be updated on the main blockchain until the two parties start or shut a channel. Before their record is published on the blockchain, several Lightning Network transactions may take place. Fees and confirmation times are considerably minimized in this manner.

Lightning achieves its objectives by using multi-signature scripts and smart contracts. A “funding transaction” occurs when two people finance a channel for the first time.

When consumers open a Lightning wallet, they are effectively constructing their tiny lightning networks. These multi-signature lightning wallets are also referred to as “payment channels” or simply “channels” on occasion.

As more users join Lightning, they will no longer be required to build their multi-signature wallet for every person with whom they want to deal. As the network increases, so make connections between wallets, and new users may be able to utilise current wallets as long as there is a wallet with sufficient cash to pass the transaction through.

Assume James establishes a channel with his neighbourhood hardware shop and deposits $50 in Bitcoin. His transactions with the hardware shop may now be completed instantaneously, thanks to the Lightning Network.

Heather, who owns a smoothie cafe in her neighbourhood, buys hardware from the same store as James. James can purchase smoothies from the smoothie business using the Lightning balance he has with the hardware store, thanks to the relationship between James, the food store, and Heather. Heather may also utilise the money she has in her smoothie store to make deals with other companies in James’ network.

If Heather closes her smoothie shop channel, James will have to start a new channel with the smoothie shop to make Lightning purchases there, providing no other channels are active. However, as the Lightning Network expands, the concept is that many different consumers will ultimately have channels with many different merchants, and there will be enough channels for everyone.

The Lightning Network’s Advantages and Disadvantages

Bitcoin’s Lightning Network

The Lightning Network’s most essential feature is that it will enable Bitcoin to scale. Bitcoin users will be able to make quick micropayments without having to pay exorbitant fees. Buying a cup of coffee using Bitcoin, for example, is almost impossible at the moment, owing to high network costs and sluggish confirmation times.

Because the project is still in its early stages, it hasn’t been widely applied to real-world scenarios.

The Lightning network will be tough for the typical user to utilise for transactions. They won’t be able to accept payments while offline unless they host their Lightning Bitcoin node, and they may or may not be able to start a channel with another person or business (who must also be using Lightning).

Is it Possible to Make Money with a Lightning Node?

The incentives for running a Lightning node aren’t nearly as high as those for mining bitcoin. There are various reasons why someone may wish to host a Lightning node, including assisting the Bitcoin network in scaling, increasing personal transaction privacy, and circumventing censorship in countries where governments have extensively restricted crypto and crypto exchanges.

However, making money is hardly a motivator for hosting a Lightning node since it normally pays just a few cents per month at best. On average, the gear necessary to operate a node will cost between $200 and $400.

The most basic guideline for investing in Bitcoin is to not host a full node unless you have a compelling reason to do so or wish to contribute to the technology’s development.


The Lightning Network is a layer-2 solution that allows Bitcoin to grow in size. It is currently in the early stages of development, but if completely developed and widely embraced, it has the potential to help Bitcoin become a more frequently used digital means of exchange.

While the Lightning Network will largely help users who want to use Bitcoin as a form of payment, it will also benefit those who want to use Bitcoin as an investment.


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